Response headers take the form of key-value pairs, separated by colons
: and terminated with a CRLF (a carriage return and line feed character), just like Request Headers (both are types of Message Headers). For example, this header:
Expires: Wed, 12 Jun 2019 08:00:00 CST
indicates to the browser that this content will expire June 12, 2019 at 8AM Central Standard Time. The browser can use this value when populating its cache, allowing it to use the cached version until the expiration time, reducing the need to make requests.
Note that response headers are a subset of message headers that apply specifically to requests. As we’ve seen there are also message headers that apply only to HTTP requests, and some that apply to both.
As HTTP is intended as an extensible protocol, there are a lot of potential headers. IANA maintains the official list of message headers as well as a list of proposed message headers. You can also find a categorized list in the MDN Documentation
While there are many possible response headers, some of the more commonly used are:
Allow Lists the HTTP Methods that can be used with the server
Content-Length The length of the response body sent, in octets
Content-Type The MIME type of the response body
Content-Encoding The encoding method of the response body
Location Used in conjunction with redirects (a 301 or 302 status code) to indicate where the user-agent should be redirected to.
Server Contains information about the server handling the request.
Set-Cookie Sets a cookie for this server on the client. The client will send back the cookie on subsequent requests using the
We’ll make use of these headers as we start writing web servers.