CSS and Text

As the original purpose of the World-Wide-Web was to disseminate written information, it should be no surprise that CSS would provide many properties for working with text. Some of the most commonly employed properties are:

  • font-family defines the font to use for the text. Its value is one or more font family or generic font names, i.e. font-family: Tahoma, serif, font-family: cursive or font-family: "Comic Sans". Font family names are typically capitalized and, if they contain spaces or special characters, double-quoted.
  • font-size determines the size of the font. It can be a measurement or a defined value like x-small.
  • font-style determines if the font should use its normal (default), italic, or oblique face.
  • font-weight determines the weight (boldness) of the font. It can be normal or bold as well as lighter or darker than its parent, or specified as a numeric value between 1 and 1000. Be aware that many fonts have a limited number of weights.
  • line-height sets the height of the line box (the distance between lines of text). It can be normal, or a numeric or percent value.
  • text-align determines how text is aligned. Possible values are left (default), center, right, justify, along with some newer experimental values.
  • text-indent indents the text by the specified value.
  • text-justify is used in conjunction with text-align: justify and specifies how space should be distributed. A value of inter-word distributes space between words (appropriate for English, Spanish, Arabic, etc), and inter-character between characters (appropriate for Japanese, Chinese, etc).
  • text-transform can be used to capitalize or lowercase text. Values include capitalize, uppercase, and lowercase.

Choosing Fonts

An important consideration when working with HTML text is that not all users will have the same fonts you have - and if the font is not on their system, the browser will fall back to a different option. Specifying a generic font name after a Font Family can help steer that fallback choice; for example:

body {
  font-family: Lucinda, cursive
}

will use Lucinda if available, or another cursive font if not. Some guidelines on font choice:

  • cursive fonts should typically only be used for headings, not body text.
  • serif fonts (those with the additional feet at the base of letters) are easier to read printed on paper, but more difficult on-screen.
  • sans-serif fonts are easier to read on-screen; your body text should most likely be a sans-serif.

Web-Safe Fonts

Fonts that commonly appear across computing platforms and have a strong possibility of being on a users' machine have come to be known as web-safe. Some of these are:

  • Arial
  • Helvetica
  • Times
  • Courier New
  • Courier
  • Georgia
  • Lucidia Console
  • Palatino
  • Verdana

Font-Face at Rule

Alternatively, if you wish to use a less-common font, you can provide it to the browser using the @font-face rule. This defines a font and provides a source for the font file:

@font-face {
  font-family: examplefont;
  src: url('examplefont.ttf');
}

You can then serve the font file from your webserver.

Warning

Be aware that distributing fonts carries different legal obligations than distributing something printed in the font. Depending on the font license, you may not be legally allowed to distribute it with the @font-face rule. Be sure to check.