In this module, we have introduced the graph data structure. We also looked at how we would implement a graph using a matrix representation. We introduced the following new concepts in this module:

  • Directed Graphs: A directed graph is a graph that has a direction associated with each edge. The flat end of the arrow will represent the origin and the arrowhead will represent the destination. If an edge has no arrowheads, then it is assumed that we can traverse both directions.

  • Edges: Edges are the connection between two nodes. Depending on the data, edges can represent physical distance, films, cost, and much more.

    • Adjacent: Node A and node B are said to be adjacent if there is an edge from node A to node B.
    • Neighbors: The neighbors of a node are nodes which are adjacent to the node.
    • Undirected Edge: An undirected edge is an edge which has no defined orientation (IE no arrowheads). If node A and node B are connected via an undirected edge then we say node A is adjacent to node B and node B is adjacent to node A.
  • Loops: Loops are edges which connect a node to itself.

  • Nodes: Node is the general term for a structure which contains an item.

    • Size: The size of a graph is the number of nodes.
    • Capacity: The capacity of a graph is the maximum number of nodes.
  • Weighted Graphs: A weighted graph is a graph which has weights associated with the edges. These weights will quantify the relationships so they can represent dollars, minutes, miles, and many other factors which our data may depend on.

In the next module, we will look at a list implementation of graphs and when we might use one implementation over the other.